Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the main cause of death around the world. The World Health Organization recently reported that “an estimated 17.9 million people died from CVDs in 2019, representing 32% of all global deaths. Of these deaths, 85% were due to heart attack and stroke. Over three quarters of CVD deaths take place in low- and middle-income countries” (World Health Organization, 2021). For this assignment, I am going to focus on (1) how the heart functions, (2) the differences among arteries, veins, and capillaries, and (3) the advantage of having a closed circulatory system over an open circulatory system.

The human heart is about the size of a person’s fist. It has four chambers. The upper two chambers are the atria, and the lower two are the ventricles. The chambers are separated by a wall of tissue called the septum. Blood is pumped through the chambers, aided by four heart valves. The valves open and close to let the blood flow in only one direction. (American Heart Association: How the Heart Works, n.d.). When the plaque build-up in the artery abruptly ruptures, platelets in the blood will quickly conceal the rupture, causing a blood clot, which limits the artery further. When blood flow is totally blocked, the influenced muscle loses its oxygen supply, and a heart attack happens. This is not good at all. Let’s look at arteries, their function, and the difference between them, veins, and capillaries.

In order to understand the differences among arteries, veins, and capillaries, we must first know what they are and how they function. Arteries are a kind of blood vessel. They work to divert blood from the heart. Interestingly, veins convey blood back to the heart. Since arteries are moving blood being siphoned out by the heart, the walls of arteries are thicker and more flexible than those of veins. Capillaries are little blood vessels have thin walls. Oxygen and nutrients from the blood can travel through the walls and get into organs and tissues. The capillaries likewise remove waste products from your tissues. Capillaries are the place where oxygen and nutrients are traded for carbon dioxide and waste.

Vertebrates and some invertebrates have a closed circulatory system; most invertebrates have an open circulatory system. For the rest of this assignment, I am going to describe both. I will also explain the advantage of having a closed circulatory system over an open circulatory system.  To get started, let me elaborate on what a closed circulatory system is. In a closed circulatory system, blood is contained inside blood vessels, circling in one direction from the heart around the systemic circulatory direction. It then travels back to the heart once more. Annelid earthworms have a closed circulatory system. In contrast, an open circulatory system is the place where blood and interstitial fluid are permitted to blend in an organism. Interstitial fluid is only the fluid found between cells in the body. The ‘blood’ in these organisms is defined as hemolymph, or the combination among blood and interstitial fluid. Compared to the open circulatory system, the closed circulatory system works with a lot worse hypertension (or blood pressure), however it is supposed to be more productive considering that it uses substantially less blood for considerably quicker and more significant levels of distribution.

In conclusion, these human organ systems are liable for critical cycles essential for sustaining life, frequently working together, interacting with other organs in a practical organization that keeps the body in balance (homeostasis). At the point when homeostasis is upset, illness might create, causing injury to the body or even deceasing. So let me go over briefly what I have relayed in this paper.

You have read that at the point when the plaque develop in the artery suddenly breaks, platelets in the blood will rapidly hide the crack, causing a blood clot, which restricts the artery further. This severe blockage is what causes heart attacks. I also explained that arteries push blood out of the heart: veins push blood in. Since arteries are moving blood being directed out by the heart, their walls are thicker and more elastic than those of veins. I also elaborated on the differences between a closed circulatory system and an open circulatory system. You have read that in a closed circulatory system, blood is contained inside blood vessels, circling in one direction from the heart around the systemic circulatory route. Interestingly, an open circulatory system is where blood and interstitial fluid are allowed to mix in an organism. That so-called ‘blood’ in these organisms is defined as hemolymph, or the combination of blood and interstitial fluid. Contrasted with the open circulatory system, the closed circulatory system works with a great deal more hypertension, but it should be more useful considering that it uses generously less blood for extensively faster and more huge degrees of dispersion.

References

American Heart Association: How the Heart Works. (n.d.). Retrieved 10 28, 2021, from http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/CongenitalHeartDefects/AboutCongenitalHeartDefects/How-the-Healthy-Heart-Works_UCM_307016_Article.jsp

World Health Organization. (2021, June 11). Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Retrieved from Who.int: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/cardiovascular-diseases-(cvds)